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Establishing the validity and reliability of Chinese version of depression anxiety stress scale in university samples in Macau

English Abstract

In order to fill research gap, the aim of the current study was to adopt the Chinese versions of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-C) and to test its factor structure, internal consistency, external validation, and differential item functioning in university samples among Macau population. Three hundred seventy participants were recruited in four institutions by convenience sampling and 296 sets of data were analyzed. Participants completed a questionnaire of demographic information, Chinese version of DASS, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded Form, and the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure of the DASS-C. Satisfactory internal consistency was found, which was consistent with previous studies of original and translated version. As expected, the depression subscale and anxiety subscale of DASS significantly positively correlated with PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Positive affects significantly negatively correlated with the three subscales and the total of DASS and negative affects significantly positively correlated with the three subscales and the total of DASS. First language, gender and ethnicity had no significant influence on the DASS scores in the current samplings. The findings suggested that the DASS-C was a valid and reliable scale for measuring depression, anxiety and stress in Macau. Recommendations for further researches were suggested.

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Chan, Hei Ka


Faculty of Social Sciences


Department of Psychology




Depression in adolescence

Stress in adolescence


Bernardo, Allan B. I.

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