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在澳門地區求學的中國內地學生的適應狀況研究 : 澳門某所大學的個案研究

English Abstract

This research aims to understand the perception of adaptation for Chinese mainland undergraduate students studying in Macao, their adjustment challenges in learning and living, the reasons for their adaptation difficulties, their adaptation strategies and expectations, and offer suggestions from the university level to help them adapt. This study conducts individual semi-structure in-depth interviews for 11 Chinese mainland undergraduates studying in a Macao university for over one year. The materials, including field notes, verbatim transcription and policy documents (such as the introduction of the university and faculties, academic calendar, manuals for freshmen, annual reports, etc.) are used to analyze the adaptation of Chinese mainland undergraduates. The followings are the main findings of this research: First, the adaptation implication perceived by Chinese mainland students (abbr. CMS): the process of achieving a “comfortable” status by adjusting one’s behaviors and emotions in academic, living or their most valued aspects (priorities). Second, in Macao, CMS need to adapt to academic study (language of instruction, curriculum, system of signing up courses, student assessment and IV impression of the teachers), university mechanism (university departments and holiday schedule), life style and interpersonal relationships. Among the above aspects, academic study and interpersonal relationships are most important for CMS adaptation. CMS’ adaptation is unpredictable and dynamic, but most of the participants are showing obvious tendency of adapting better gradually. Participants will experience 3-phase adaptation: “contraction”, “expansion” and “contraction”, and this process is reflected in interpersonal relationships and primary objectives (priority). When newly enter, CMS are in a state of depression, and will get better along with making friends. CMS describe their motives to pursue studies in Macao as instrumental motivation (dominative) and integrative motivation (supplementary). The more cheerful their personalities are and the stronger instrumental motivation they have, the better their social-cultural adaptation is and the faster their interpersonal adaptation is. Third, the adaptation of CMS is greatly influenced by priorities, languages, and interpersonal relationships. The more satisfied CMS are with their performance in their priorities, namely academic studies, interpersonal relationships and student activities, the better they adapt. The adaptation to the language of instruction is V crucial for CMS’ overall academic adaptation, especially the reading and listening abilities of English, as well as the listening capability of Cantonese. Among all kinds of interpersonal relationships, CMS value friends the most as they facilitate CMS’ adaptation. CMS tend to make friends with people who share similar cultural background, and they have little interactions with local students in Macao. Among CMS, male students who come from northern China, have relatively more Chinese mainland classmates and seldom participate in student associations, have lower fluency and acceptance of Cantonese than female students who come from other districts, have fewer Chinese mainland classmates and participate in more student associations. Fourth, CMS mainly adopt self-adjustment or seek help from friends, parents and teachers to adapt from attitudes and emotions as well as the abilities and behaviors. Proactive attitude, cheerful and outgoing personalities are beneficial for adaptation. Fifth, the measures to improve the university mechanisms to assist CMS adaptations mainly cover the following aspects: curriculum, system of signing up courses, university departments, student assessment, teachers, holiday schedule and orientation. Some of the measures need the cooperation of the teachers, faculties and university departments. The most concerned university mechanism issues to CMS VI are winter break schedule and the system of signing up courses. The university should enable the students better know, understand and participate in related activities, the plan of which also need to take CMS’ preferences and development. Pre-adaptation is vital, so continuous help from the university concerning CMS’ psychological, academic and interpersonal adaptations is recommended.

Chinese Abstract

本研究旨在瞭解在澳門就讀的中國內地本科生感知中的適應意涵,他們遇 到的適應問題,探討造成他們適應困難的原因,調查他們的適應對策,瞭解他 們對於適應的期望,從學校層面提出有助於他們適應的方法和途徑。 本研究通過對 11 名在澳門某高等院校求學的中國內地本科生(在該校求學 滿一年)進行半結構式個人深入訪談,結合田野筆記和該校的相關宣傳資料和 政策文件(包括學校學院機構介紹、學年日曆、新生手冊、學校年度報告等), 分析探討內地生的適應情況。本研究主要有以下發現: 一、在澳門就讀的中國內地本科生(以下用「內地生」表示)感知中的適 應意涵是:通過調整在學習、生活或者自己重視的方面(priority)的行為和情 緒,來達到一種「舒服」狀態的過程。 二、內地生在澳門的適應對象主要包括學業(授課語言、課程設置、選課 制度、學生評核和師資印象)、學校體制(學校部門和假期設置)、生活適應和 人際適應幾個方面。其中學業和人際關係是影響學生適應的重要方面。 適應是一個不可預測的動態的過程,但大部份參與者的適應都呈現明顯的 徐徐上升趨勢。內地生的適應會經歷「緊縮」、「膨脹」和「緊縮」的狀態,這 一狀態突出表現在人際交往和首要目標(priority)兩方面。剛入學時,情緒處 在比較低迷的狀態,會隨著人際關係的建立和維持而慢慢好轉。 內地生對來澳門讀大學的動機描述以工具型動機為主,融入型動機為輔。 II 性格越開朗、融入性動機越強,社會文化適應程度越高、人際適應也會更快。 三、影響內地生適應困難的主要原因有三點,首要目標、語言及人際關係。 內地生越滿足於自己在首要目標(priority)上的表現,適應程度就越高,包括 學業、人際關係、學生活動等。授課語言的適應對於學生學業適應十分重要, 其中英語的閱讀和聽力,以及粵語的聽力十分關鍵。背景條件滿足北方地區、 同學內地生較多、參與學生組織較少的男生,比其他地區、同學中內地生少、 參與學生組織較多的女生,粵語程度以及對粵語的接受度要低。大部份內地生 認為朋友對於自身適應幫助最大。內地生傾向於與自己相似文化背景的內地生 交朋友,與澳門本地生的交往不多。 四、內地生主要以自我調適或向朋友、家長和老師等求助的方式,從心態 與情緒、能力和行為等方面來適應。主動的態度、開朗的性格有利於適應。 五、提升學校幫助學生協助體制主要涵蓋以下方面:課程設置、選課制度、 學校部門、學生評核、師資印象、假期安排和提前適應,有些提升機制需要教 師、院系以及學校職能部門之間的配合。內地生希望大學改善的問題,最突出 的是寒假假期設置以及選課制度。大學應讓學生更直接有效地得知、瞭解、參 與學校的有關計劃,而計劃的制定建議考慮學生的意願並且適應學生發展的需 求。提前適應很重要,建議大學提前開展心理、學業、人際等主題的持續性的 幫助學生適應的活動。

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Faculty of Education




College students -- China -- Psychology -- Case studies

大專學生 -- 中國 -- 心理 -- 個案研究

Chinese students -- Macau

華人學生 -- 澳門

College students -- China

大專學生 -- 中國



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