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澳門競爭制度研究 : 從經濟體特徵角度分析 = The study on competition system of Macao : an analysis from the perspective of economic characteristics

English Abstract

Competition law has been mentioned in recent years and attracted a full range of global attention, however, the competition law of small economies has hardly been taken into consideration. As the Constitution in economic laws, competition law of modern states plays an important role in regulating economic activities and promoting economic growth. Therefore, competition law must be made in the light of actual situation of society, economy and politics. Compared with large economies, small economies have their own characteristics, which have a great influence on the formulation of their competition law. After the return to the motherland, Macao has a rapid economic development and has gradually been known as one of the worlds’ most freely economy. According to the economic theories, the power of market could promote economic growth rather than governmental intervention. Up till now, Macao does not adapt any legislation with respect to protect market economy, which is one unfavorable factor of promoting economic competitiveness. Macao is regarded as a small economy or mini economy when most scholars argue about Macao. Few of them focus on its specific characteristics, let alone the impact on the competition policy. This article carries on the general characteristics of small economies by comparing different theories. To meet the needs of economic development, we would set up proper objectives of competition law through the study on the current system. This paper would argue the Macau competition system in three parts. In Part I, we would argue the basic question. Responses to the definition of small economies and its characteristics vary from the countries or institutions. Macao as a typical small economy has its specific characteristics. After comparing the different theories, it’s easy to find that there is still a lot to be discussed and no common understanding of this question. The research on distinguishing feature of Macao is necessary. Then we should answer how the size of the economies affects the adaption of competition law. In Part II, the present competition system would be discussed with the empirical method. Since there is no general competition law in Macao, sectoral laws and their practice effects would be the main object. On the basis of the actual economic data, we should determine the problems of present system. In Part III, the paper will give some suggestion about the improvement of competition system. Combining the results above with the specific factors of small economies, we would argue some problems in practice of competition system. Comparing with the experiences of some other counties or regions, the implementation of competition law depends on the competition policy goals. Therefore, we should fully learn from the experience and choose the proper goals in line with the condition of Macao and ensure the implementation of competition system in future. Key words: Small Economies, Competition law, Goals of Competition Policy

Chinese Abstract

競爭法在近些年一直受到世界各國的廣泛關注,但是小型經濟體的競爭制 度卻極少引起注意。競爭法作為現代國家積極規範市場運行機制的基本法律制 度,是經濟法中的憲法。該法律的制定應從特定的社會、經濟和政治等因素來 考慮。與大型經濟體相比,小型經濟體有其自身特有的經濟體特徵,並影響著 本地競爭法的制定。 澳門在迴歸以後,經濟高速發展,並逐漸成為市場自由的經濟體。根據經 濟學一般理論,市場競爭可以促進經濟效率,政府應當減少對經濟的幹預。但 澳門至今仍未制定競爭法,用以保護市場競爭,這將不利於提升本地經濟的競 爭力。 不少學者在研究澳門經濟問題時都將澳門歸為小型經濟體或迷你型經濟 體,卻極少有學者對其特徵進行研究,更不用說對競爭政策的影響。本文希望 通過對小型經濟體的競爭理論研究,得出小型經濟體的一般特徵。結合澳門競 爭制度的現狀,得出適合澳門競爭制度的價值取向。 本文希望從三個方面展開對澳門競爭制度的研究。 第一部分是基礎問題的研究。首先對小型經濟體的概念及其特徵進行探討, 進而分析澳門經濟體特徵的特殊性。通過理論比較,觀察到目前針對這一問題的 研究尚不充分,很多問題存在爭議。因此,有必要對澳門經濟體特徵的特殊性進 行整理。其次,研究經濟體規模與競爭制度之間的關係,確定兩者之間是否具有 一般的聯繫。 第二部分主要對澳門現有的競爭制度進行研究。由於澳門現在並沒有一般的 競爭法,所以需要對相關的單行法規進行梳理,並用實證方法研究澳門競爭法律 制度的現狀;其次,總結出這些法律的實施效果;最後,對法律的實施效果進行 分析,得出現有競爭法律制度的缺陷。 第三部分針對澳門競爭制度的完善提出建議。結合前一部分的分析結果,並 加入小型經濟體的特徵因素,提出澳門競爭制度發展中存在的部分問題。以此為 基礎,比較其他國家或地區競爭制度的發展經驗,得出競爭制度制定以及發展過 程中的規律,提取出適合澳門本地的參考經驗,並為澳門競爭制度的將來發展設 定合理的政策目標。 關鍵字:小型經濟體,競爭法,競爭政策目標

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Faculty of Law




Competition, Unfair -- Macau

不公平競爭 -- 澳門

Macau -- Economic conditions -- 2002-

澳門 -- 經濟狀況 -- 2002-



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