UM E-Theses Collection (澳門大學電子學位論文庫)


Performance appraisal model and measurement : a synthesis of eastern and western content areas

English Abstract

Evaluating the performance of employees has been a critical concern to management of organizations all over the world, however, there exist many difficulties, one of which is how to effectively appraise performance without causing objections from both the appraisers and the appraisees. Another difficulty is that most of the existing literature on performance appraisal (PA) focused on western countries, with typically different cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors than in China. This dissertation outlines an effort to identify some generally acceptable PA content areas across industries among Chinese employees, and to explore their relationships with other related organizational variables such as: Organizational Socialization, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention. Four consecutive studies were carried out to try to resolve these difficulties. In Study One, high acceptance ratings were obtained from 348 respondents from various industries in Macao and Zhuhai. Four clean PA factors plus an additional factor were found, namely: (1) Work Dedication, (2) Work Communication, (3) Team Work, (4) Work Efficiency, and (5) Supervisory Ambition. Study Two asked 341 line-level employees from Macao and Zhuhai to evaluate their own job performance using the PA factors identified in Study One, and the relationships between these PA factors and Organizational Socialization (OS), Perceived Organizational Support (POS), and Burnout were examined. Significant differences were found in the mean scores of the variables between Macao and Zhuhai respondents. OS, POS, and Personal Accomplishment (a Burnout dimension) were found to be significantly correlated with the PA factors. Data were collected form 57 supervisors in Study Three. Willingness of the supervisors to use the identified PA factors to evaluate their subordinates’ job performance was found. Chinese Values appeared to significantly affect supervisor's willingness to accept these PA criteria. Data in Study Four were obtained from 31 supervisors and 223 subordinates. The study assessed a proposed research model of PA, and its relationships with some antecedents and outcomes of performance evaluations. Comparisons between self evaluations of job performance and supervisors’ ratings showed some interesting differences. Relationships between the PA factors, some personality factors (e.g., Conscientiousness and Attribution for Success), organizational factors (e.g., Leadership Behavior and Occupational Stress), and outcome variables (e.g., Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention) were examined. Chinese Values, Conscientiousness, Attribution to Self, and some Leadership Styles were found to be significantly correlated with performance dimensions, and job performance was found to be positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction and job commitment, but highly and negatively with Occupational Stress. Many influencing factors for performance dimensions were found, including Chinese Values, Conscientiousness, Attribution to Self, Organizational Socialization, and some Leadership Styles. This dissertation adds to the existing body of knowledge on performance appraisal, especially on the content areas of PA in the Chinese organizational context. It also supports the management of organizations practically by identifying acceptable PA content areas across industries. Future research could apply these PA content areas to other cultural settings, and to explore other influencing factors that might predict PA.

Issue date



Gao, Hong


Faculty of Business Administration


Department of Management and Marketing




Employees -- Rating of

Organizational behavior


Taormina, Robert J.

Files In This Item

View the Table of Contents

View the Abstract

1/F Zone C
Library URL